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Turkey's relationship with Russia has had its ups and downs. In November 2015, Turkey shot down a Russian military jet for airspace violations, which was followed by extensive economic sanctions from Moscow. In recent months however, it seems that the two countries came to terms.

At a joint press conference in Ankara, the Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu stated that Turkey's ties with Russia are too strong to be broken by Western leaders.[1] Despite being a NATO member, Turkey cooperates with the Kremlin in defense.

The alleged coup of 2016 was an important milestone. Russia supported Recep Yayyip Erdogan’s regime after the incident. Since then, the bilateral relations in the fields of nuclear energy, pipelines, investments, and arms have increased significantly.[2]

According to Open Democracy, the developments after the coup attempt also had a negative impact on the state of media in the country. Disinformation started to spread on mainstream media platforms and the emphasis placed on press ethics and the implementation of media legislation largely disappeared as the judicial system weakened.[3] According to Freedom House's Freedom of the Net report, Turkey's ruling party also employed 6,000 people to manipulate online discussions on social media.[4]




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