The relationship between Kosovo and the Russian Federation has been complicated since the very beginning of Kosovan independence. In February 2009, the Russian Federation’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that it supports Serbia's territorial integrity and did not recognize Kosovo as a sovereign country.
Up until the annexation of Crimea, the Russian Federation has been a strong opponent of any separatist movements, including Kosovo’s. In the years following independence, Russia has asserted its influence in Serbia, providing it with military equipment—placing further pressure on Kosovo.
There is not a lot of data about the state of Russian influence in Kosovo or the counter-measures implemented by the country. However, according to a study by the Kosovar Centre for Security Studies, Kosovo faces Russian meddling with the aim of undermining the Euro-Atlantic partnerships and democratic institutions. One of the most important tools of influence is the Serbian Orthodox Church.